Landmark Research Trials

ACE-I/ARB

CHARM Trial(2003)-Effects of candesartan in patients with CHF and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors- The CHARM-Alternative trial ValHeFT(1999)-Improving Outcomes in Congestive Heart Failure- Val-HeFT SAVE(1992)-Effect of Captopril on Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with LV Dysfunction after MI SOLVD Prevention Trial(1992)-Effect of Enalapril on Mortality and the Development of HF in Asymptomatic Patients with Reduced LVEF SOLVD Treatment Trial(1991)-Effect of Enalapril on Survival in Patients with Reduced LVEF and CHF

Beta Blocker

COPERNICUS(2001)-Effect of Carvedilol on Survival in Severe CHF MERIT-HF Trial(1999)-Effect of Metoprolol CR/XL in CHF- Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in CHF CIBIS-Trial(1999)-The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II) US CARV Study(1996)-The Effect of Carvedilol on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with CHF

 Aldosterone Antagonism

RALES(1999)-The Effect of Spironolactone on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Severe HF Emphasis Trial(2010): Eplerenone in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure and Mild Symptoms

Nitrates/Hydralazine

V-HEFT II Trial(1991)-A Comparison of Enalapril with Hydralazine-Isosorbide Dinitrate in the Treatment of Chronic Congestive HF A-HeFT Trial(2004)-Combination of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydrazaline in Blacks with HF

Digoxin

DIG Trial(1997)-The Effect of Digoxin on Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with HF

ICD

SCD-HEFT(2005)-Amiodarone or an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for CHF MADIT-II(2002)-Prophylactic Implantation of a Defibrillator in Patients with MI and Reduced EF

 CRT

RAFT(2010)-Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy for Mild-to-Moderate HF MADIT-CRT(2009)-Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy for the Prevention of Heart-Failure Events CARE-HF(2005)-The Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization on Morbidity and Mortality in HF